A Revolution of Sorts


The friction of contradictions fire the crucible out of which Northampton community formed.” This sentence is how historian Kerry Buckley introduced Historic Northampton’s 2004 update of the city’s story, A Place Called Paradise ”The dynamic between factions_ newcomers and old-timers, Yankees and immigrants, young and old, has always been part of the creative tension that, at its best, has enlarged the community’s capacity for tolerance.”

Add LGBTQ peoples to Buckley’s list of contrary factions. LGBTQ peoples in large numbers came to, or came out within, Northampton starting in 1970, creating friction both in the town and amongst themselves. Peoples, in the plural, because it has been successive waves of differently-identified persons who have emerged, come out, gathered, organized, agitated, advocated, and created on their own behalf. There have been multiple peoples over more than four decades, with little in common except an outlaw status — outside heteropatriarchal marriage (until 2004) and stigmatized — that has formed the basis for occasional coalition and a more mythical community.

LGBTQ people were here in Northampton all along, just not visible until starting in the 1970s various populations, sequentially, came out to each other swelling to a critical mass  that allowed for  organization. Lesbians; then gay men; then their parents; add queers and bisexuals, here come transsexuals, and transvestites; don’t forget young people; how about spouses or significant others? Each newly emerging group defined themselves, voiced their needs to each other, and added unique solutions to respond to those unmet needs. Each group spun themselves into the fabric of a subculture that gradually became more visible on Main Street. Chief among the needs for each group of people have been safe and supportive ways to meet each other, and, as increasing numbers of people came out and met, new groups or activities formed to meet increasingly specific needs.

Collectively (and fractiously) growing in strength over time, the activity centered in Northampton often provided an organizational nexus for all of Western Massachusetts. The long-lived and most visible LGBTQ cultural institution, the annual March/Parade (under varying names), began as a coalition for change in Northampton, reflected the shifts in politicized populations over time, and became a forum of expression for all of the region. As part of a state and national movement of change, a loose alliance of groups centered here helped bring new civil liberties in the state as well as inclusion in the politics of the municipality.

Some would say an integration of sorts has been achieved by these LGBTQ peoples, with many needs now met by mainstream institutions, and visibility largely unremarked upon in most parts of town. There is a record of groups forming and then falling away over time, but was that because they were no longer needed? The reasons for this could be explored in this blog, as well as a search for any lessons about creating change that can be applied to this new era. And still to be painted is a portrait of Northampton LGBTQ (add the latest initial) today, to hold up in comparison to that of the 1960s isolation. What has stayed the same? What has changed? What still is needed? Who is going to create something to fill that need? And can history hand them some tools to do it with?

COMING NEXT: An Overview of the 1970s.

button gay revolution 197103202015
button I brought back from Christopher Street March NYC June 1971

 

Comments On the Introduction, Plus_


It’s been an eventful week of reaction to the last blog post which fills me with both joy and trepidation. Thought I’d share some more wonderful responses to the Intro post that only appeared on my private fb page or messages. So with permission copying here:

_From Judith Gallman Schenck; “I remember the wonderful sub-culture we had when we went out for breakfast at Common Womon private women’s club, shopped at Womonfyre bookstore, practiced karate at Nutcracker Suite, went to events at Lesbian Gardens, and hung out at the Gala lesbian backroom bar. There were prices to pay – violence against the community, etc. – and it seems like such a long time ago. Ah, there are stories to tell!”

_Judith Gallman Schenck; “My favorite RECENT story is about the movies Out For Reel used to show. After a show at the Academy of Music, we, along with about 300 other lesbians, were walking toward City Hall and our car when we passed a group of male college students. One of them looked at all of us and said to his mates, “I told you Northampton was a great place to meet girls.” We fell over laughing.” Judith has promised to share one account of some of that “violence against the community”_ previously published in a Lesbian magazine.

_From Beth Bellavance-Grace (who is featured with Karen in the tabloid photo); “I just want to state for the record, I coined the word ‘Lesbianville’ and unfortunately handed it to the Enquirer. Did you know there was an article in the L.A. Times about Northampton? It came out after our engagement was finally posted in the [Hampshire] Gazette. That’s how the slimy Enquirer got on to the story. Then they came and lied about who they were; we were told they were from a paper in Plymouth writing an article about how different Northampton was to Ptown. Ah youth. We were so naive then. But certainly not for long.” The LA Times article is available as a synopsis or full text (pay-per-view) ; http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/doc/281489467.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Dec+19%2C+1991&author=Mehren%2C+Elizabeth&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+%28pre-1997+Fulltext%29&edition=&startpage=&desc=A+Place+to+Call+Home+A+Small+Massachusetts+College+Town+Has+Become+a+Haven+for+Women%2C+Especially+Lesbians I am urging Beth to find and share some of her fine documentary photographs.

_And Fern Spierer (who is featured in the graffiti on the railroad bridge) shared the National Enquirer clipping with the daily blog Only in Northampton who posted it Dec. 27, garnering 150 likes, 16 comments and 35 shares in a flash. I think that’s lesbian power, or at least a measure of the interest in this part of the town’s past. I used the opportunity to credit Wicked as the source of the clipping and OiN later graciously posted about the blog, as well as using the press clipping as their cover photo. Many thanks to Fern and OiN for pushing this blog a little further out of the closet, or as I replied to Fern, the turtle sticks her head out a little further from the shell. Try linking here to their post for more comments to the “lesbianville” clipping: https://www.facebook.com/OnlyInNorthampton/photos/a.175072409338756.1073741828.173832649462732/371353086377353/?type=1″

Coming up next on this blog; I’ve asked myself how does one approach and enter a stream of over three centuries of history? And do so in a way that carries others along into this great, evolving story? Stay tuned to see if I manage to figure it out.

An Introduction to Northampton’s Queer History


better natl enq12262014
(clicking on photo will enlarge it to readability though it will load slowly)

No one I know was pleased when Northampton was dubbed “Lesbianville, USA” by the National Enquirer in 1992, but as sexploitive as that coverage was, there is an element of truth to it. Over the last thirty years, lesbians have become a visible presence in the city. That there is an unusually high number of women in the town willing to openly identify as being in a same-sex partnerships was confirmed by the 1990 U.S. Census .

What the tabloid left out, of course, is the context of this lesbian visibility. No mention was made of the facts that it has happened slowly over decades as a part of nationwide social change, and that it happened here with much effort and struggle, both within a nascent community and against the resistance, sometimes-violent, of mainstream Northampton. Chic lesbians did not simply spring forth fully-grown, as from Zeus’ brow, to stroll hand-in-hand down Noho’s streets.

People have great interest in knowing why this has occurred in Northampton, but I have yet to discover a satisfactory explanation for the town’s lesbian, and more recent gay male, preponderance. Many point to the existence of Smith, the Ivy League women’s college, as a major supporting factor but no one can say why this institution started here in the first place. Leslea Newman, tongue in cheek, has posited that “it was fated in 1884, when Thomas M. Shepherd designed the official city seal, which depicts

NORTHAMPTON-TOWN-SEAL-copy (1)
Courtesy of Historic Northampton

the Goddess of Knowledge holding hands with the Maiden Charity.”  At best I can conjecture that the element which attracted the colonists to this place, the meandering river with its deep deposits of rich open soil, has also attracted those who resonate to some geometaphysical aura, a particular and feminine fecundity that supports creative possibilities. After all, the River has shaped the town’s eastern border into the profile of a breast.

Regardless of the reason, what I’ve found so far is not an unusual story. From initial surveys of U.S. and regional LGBTQ histories, it appears to me that Northampton’s history of the development of LGBTQ sub-cultures and later communities largely parallels that of communities across the country in the emergence of ideas, issues and new activities. Though there are some important anomalies other than the larger lesbian presence, as well as distinct differences between the three counties, the local queer history usually lags behind larger metropolitan areas outside Western Mass where new ideas and activities seem to germinate; generally occurs to lesser magnitude simply because of population size; and has been a bit ahead of the developments in even smaller towns.

While the story of lesbians is central to this Northampton history, it is also linked to that of other people who have also been stigmatized for acting outside the sexual norm. The names for these activities and the people sometimes identified with them have changed over time, leaving me to fumble for an adequate way to describe the fuzzy parameters of this history. “LGBT,” “Queer,” and “Sexual Minorities” are just a few of the most recent umbrella terms coined to describe this loosely related population. This naming process, both the imposed and self-selected, is a major thread in the story, and so throughout the blog posts you will see these descriptive names shift with the time. An effort will be made to include “all of the above” in this history blog of Northampton’s odd, by any other name, citizens.

Most of this history is still missing, especially that of the Native residents of the Nonotuck home land and the first three hundred years since the English founding of the town. Much of the oldest history to be included here is just a synopsis of what little has been uncovered so far of that early heritage, with a working outline, based on the histories of other locales, of what might be discovered by future research. The bulk of the blog posts will focus on the last forty plus years, drawn from more readily available sources: remembrances of people still alive who’ve been part of this social change, and facts and accounts drawn from documents that were generated at the time.

Because of this blog’s limited focus and format, much can only be mentioned briefly. I hope to provide an overview and at least thumbnail sketches of the plethora of organizations and groups that have shaped social change here since 1970, those that were at least semi-publically “out.” And though people’s sense of this community knows no strict geographic bounds, I will generally have to focus on what’s been centered in Northampton and only indicate its connections and comparisons to the rest of the Valley.

As the posts accumulate, you are invited to amplify and/or correct these pieces of history, suggest more, and also add your stories, particularly how your life has been impacted by the events that will be retold here. Please remember that this is a public site, so “out” no one but yourself. All these caveats aside, I hope this blog will give you some perspective on an important part of Northampton’s history.

Kaymarion Raymond

SOURCES:

_“Strange town where men aren’t wanted.” National Enquirer.Vol. 66,No. 39, April 21, 1992:8.   I only have a photocopy with handwritten date, might this have been April 21?  Yes, thank you Mary McClintock for verifying pub date.

_“Household Composition (Non-traditional living arrangements): Massachusetts.” 1990 U.S. Census of Population & Housing, Summary Tape Files 4B & 4A. State Data Center/ Massachusetts Institute for Social & Economic Research.    Northampton had the fourth largest number of lesbian couples in the state, after Boston, Somerville and Cambridge. The tabloid figure of 10,000 was probably taken from the total for the county.

_Leslea Newman. “Greetings from Lesbianville U.S.A.: grrrls, goddesses, and Gloria Steinem! Northampton, Mass., is the Sapphic center of America, tucked away among New England academia,” The Advocate (The national gay & lesbian newsmagazine), 1 March 2005, /Greetings+from+Lesbianville+U.S.A.%3A+grrrls,+goddesses,+and+Gloria…-a0129710080.

_Seal of City of Northampton was copied off the town webpage. I would love a not-so-fuzzy version. Anyone got?

A Blog? Really?


Back in 2003, I volunteered, at the suggestion of Deliah R. (can I use your last name?), to edit a chapbook on Northampton’s LGBTQ history as part of a series being planned for the 2004 celebration of the town’s 350th birthday. I had lived there off and on for thirteen years, been politically active for a decade or so, and had become a packrat for historical facts and artifacts. I thought that in a year I could track down participants in the previous thirty years of the LGBTQ movements centered in ‘Hamp and get these folks to write short descriptive pieces about what had happened, why, how, and what was important about it. After that, I could write an essay to fill in the story and tie the pieces together, with lots of pictures. Smile.

OK, I was very naive. I need to apologize to the fine folks of the 350th publication committee who offered our community an opportunity to be included. Though I was able to locate many people who had been involved in past activities, I badly underestimated the time, interest, ability to think historically and to write needed for the task. I wish to thank those few who did write pieces. With the contributors’ permission, you will see them posted in this blog in the months to come.

Pushed by the 2004 publication deadline I did a considerable amount of work, not just with contributors, but researching and drafting pieces for which there were no contacts. The deadline came and went; I still had to work to pay the rent. In the midst of the emotionally difficult process of researching and drafting the history of the “Bi controversy,” I got more pleasantly distracted by Colonial history: a mysterious hanging in the 1600s, a rich bachelor who collected watches in lieu of children, a bohemian tearoom, an astounding number of outspoken old maids in the 1930s and other meanderings through the town and Valley’s past.

Oh, and did I mention that all that time I was living off-the-grid, with electricity sporadically provided by a little Honda generator in the outhouse and only dial-up for internet access?

Over the past decade, my enthusiasm for the project has waned (though I’ve kept delving into various pieces). Recently, though, I moved down into civilization with running water, electricity and Wi-Fi! In the move, I brought along about seventy-five pages of the history manuscript, a ream or so of handwritten drafts, and boxes of subject files full of delicious documents. Romancing the internet anew, I find not just cat videos and facebook, but new electronic form to the LGBT communities of the Valley and as well to the communication grapevines that can be tapped into.

So, rather than just giving all this junk to an archive, turning to learning pastels and starting to paint again, I am putting what I have out into the world electronically where it may be of some use, if only as entertainment. I want to blog in a way that invites collaboration. This will very much be a work-in-progress, actively inviting those of you with some particular knowledge to correct, add to, or amplify what’s posted, with links to pertinent history sources and news.

Welcome. To stay tuned in and get notice of new posts please “follow” for emails or facebook “like” plus “get notifications” using the widget on this page.

Now it’s time to say goodbye to thirty years of forest bathing and Luddite living: (click on cartoon to see more readable full screen)

wendell cartoon12112014